Natural Features of Punkaharju Nature Reserve

Photo: Jussi-Pekka Manner
Punkaharju is one of the world’s oldest nature reserves. This destination is also a national landscape and is an example of esker formation at its most beautiful.

Taking care of nature

Esker Nature

According to botanic geography Punkaharju is part of the Eastern Finland herb-rich forest area and its most important natural features are a direct result of the Ice Age. The unique shapes of the esker ridge were formed 10 000 years ago as the continental glacier withdrew towards the Bothnian Sea at the end of the Ice Age.

Photo: Auvo Sapattinen

The first vegetation spread to the area as the land came in view from beneath melt-waters. There are still signs today of the early species which spread in the area. The Yellow Oxytropis (Oxytropis campestris) blooms generously along the ridge road in May - June. Today the Alpine Milkvetch (Astragalus alpinus) is a typical northern and esker plant. For the most part the area's vegetation consists of species typical of dry forests. These are for example Catsfoot (Antennaria dioica), the Heather (Calluna vulgaris) and the Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).

The area's steep surfaces create varying habitats: the south and west facing slopes glow with heat on hot summer days, whereas the north and east facing slopes maintain a cool and damp microclimate. Indeed demanding esker vegetation which can tolerate high temperatures thrives on the southern slopes. The soil holds water poorly so plants must also be able to tolerate dry conditions. Along-side the driest pine forests there are also small, lush herb-rich forest islets on the lake shores and at the bottom of "suppa" depressions. Demanding species such as the Wonder Violet (Viola mirabilis), the Great-spurred Violet (Viola selkirkii), the Broad-leaved Willowherb (Epilobium montanum) and Ostrich Fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) grow in these spots.

Photo: Mari Laukkanen

Kokonharju Old-growth Forest

The area around the ridge top road has been landscaped taking scenic points into special consideration, which means the area does not represent esker landscape in its most natural state. A good comparison point for the research forest and the landscaping area is Kokonharju Esker, where forests have been left to develop and grow in peace getting closer to their natural state. The grand pines have an undergrowth of smaller spruce trees and as time passes the forest will become overgrown.

Kokonharju old-growth forest. Photo: Anne Pyykönen.

Birds and Animals

In this area visitors have the opportunity to see some of the typical species of dry forests. Visitors may encounter the Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), the Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). On summer nights at twilight visitors can listen to the mysterious humming of the Nubian Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus). Also the Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) and the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) nest in the area. The Black-throated Diver (Gavia arctica), the Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) and the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) thrive in the area's shoreline waters.

Very fortunate visitors may catch a glimpse of a group of Spotted Nutcrackers (Nucifraga caryocatactes) in the research forest's Swiss and Siberian stone pine forest in Laukansaari area. On the Kaarnalahti Bay and Lake Valkialampi shores there are commonly bite marks left by beavers and during quiet evenings hikers may even see an actual beaver (Castor canadensis). Also the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) and the fox (Vulpes vulpes) have been seen in the ridge area.

Learn about trees in the research forests

There is a long tradition of forest research in Punkaharju area. The arboretum in which visitors have the chance to see approximately one hundred tree species, brings its own spice to the area. The arboretum is located next to Punkaharju Esker Nature Reserve in Laukansaari area. Trees from corresponding climate zones have been relocated to Finland as a test to see how they will fare here in Finland. Amongst these there are exceptional species such as the Picea abies f. virgata. Studies and follow-up have helped gather new information on forest nature as well as helped in develop new forest cultivation methods. The Natural Resources Institute Finland ( is the party which answers for these studies.

Photo: Jussi Kirmanen

Members of the Finnish Forestry Association in Punkaharju research park 1907. Montell larch forest was planted in 1877. Photo: Lusto/E. M. Andersen.