Natural Features of Tiilikkajärvi National Park
Tiilikkajärvi National Park was established to preserve wilderness-like lake, river and esker ecosystems, as well as the open aapa bogs surrounding Lake Tiilikka. As an indication of the area’s wild and remote character, a lucky hiker may even get a visit from a Siberian jay.
The lake is about 4 sq. km in size. The humus-filled River Itkonjoki flows into Lake Tiilikka after having passed through the parks mires. Lake Tiilikka has very few aquatic plants as the water is quite hard when it flows from the mires.
Some of the most typical water birds in the National Park are the Teal (Anas crecca) and the the Black-throated Diver (Gavia arctica). The most common waders are the Common Sandpiper (Tringa / Actitis hypoleucos) and the Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola). A Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius) can often been seen on the sandy beaches. Visitors may also see structures and tracks made by beavers.
The scenery is dominated by low, narrow ridge capes covered by pines. The Pohjoisniemi and Kalmoniemi eskers with a combined length of around four kilometres almost divide Lake Tiilikka into two halves. However, there is a gap of 150 metres between the tips of the eskers. White sandy beaches or water-smoothed stones outline the lake.
The eskers were formed when the ice sheet melted more than 10,000 years ago. As the edge of the ice sheet retreated, tunnels carved by the meltwaters turned into low eskers with steep slopes.
The vegetation on the ridges is fragile and does not handle wear and tear well. For this reason visitors must stay on marked trails when crossing ridges.
Under one third of the land in the park is covered by forest, as mires are the predominant natural feature of the park. The majority of the forest is a dry pine forest. There is no lush forest here. The most common birds in the forests are the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), the Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), the Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), the Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis) and the Redwing (Turdus iliacus).
Over two thirds of the park's area is mire. Tiilikka area is in an ecotome of two mire types in which the characteristics of northern and southern mires merge. For the most part, the large mires in the park are open aapa bogs. Oligotrophic open mires are divided by eskers running from northwest to southeast.
On the edges of the open mires there are peat moss covered pine mires, with dry shrubs. Aapa mires provide habitat for diverse bird species. The most common bird there is the Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava). The waders which will most likely be seen in the park are the Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) and the Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus).
Tiilikkajärvi National Park
- Established 1982
- Area 34 km²
The Emblem of Tiilikkajärvi National Park is Etchings on the Täyssinä peace treaty border stone