Tsarmitunturi Wilderness Area is an old hunting and fishing area with no permanent inhabitants. The nearest villages are Nellim, Akujärvi and Keväjärvi. Many names of the places in the area are related to fishing or hunting. The most important game animals have been the Wild Fell Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) = in Finnish "peura", the Brown bear (Ursus arctos) = "karhu", Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) = "metso", and the Otter (Lutra lutra) = "saukko", after which many places have been named. The most important fish species in the area have been the Burbot (Lota lota) = "made", the Pike (Esox lucius) = "hauki", the Whitefish (Goregonus lavaretus) = "siika" and the Trout (Salmo trutta) = "taimen".

The Rough-legged Buzzard lives in the area. Photo: Markus Varesvuo